- Iron is a mineral that helps build red blood cells.
- Good sources of iron include red meat, eggs, poultry, fish, legumes (or beans), fortified cereals, and leafy greens.
- If you don’t have enough iron, you can become anemic, leaving you feeling tired and weak.
Iron is a mineral that helps build red blood cells, which is especially important for growing teens. Most importantly, iron helps your blood cells carry oxygen, which provides energy throughout the body. Therefore, getting the right amount of iron can improve your energy and affect activities such as performance in sports and in school. People who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet need to pay extra attention to make sure they get enough iron.
What happens if I don’t get enough iron?
Iron deficiency can cause a condition called iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia occurs when you do not get enough iron and therefore your body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Without the right amount of healthy red blood cells, your body’s muscles and organs cannot get the oxygen they need. This can cause people with iron deficiency anemia to look pale, and feel weak and tired. Not getting enough iron in your diet or losing too much iron from heavy menstrual periods are the most common causes of iron deficiency anemia. Your health care provider may recommend a multivitamin with iron if it seems like you are not getting enough iron from foods. If a blood test indicates you are anemic, your health care provider may suggest an additional iron supplement.
How much iron do I need?
Iron is measured in milligrams. The amount you need depends on your age, gender, body size, and lifestyle. In general, you can use these guidelines to figure out how much iron you need:
- Young Women
- Age 9-13: 8 mg/day
- Age 14-18: 15 mg/day
- Young Men
- Age 9-13: 8 mg/day
- Age 14-18: 11 mg/day
What foods are rich in iron?
Red meat, eggs, poultry, fish, legumes (beans), fortified cereals, and dark leafy greens (like spinach and broccoli) are good sources of iron. It is important to know that your body absorbs iron from animal sources (also known as “heme” iron) more easily than it absorbs iron from plant sources (also known as “non-heme” iron). The richest sources of dietary iron comes from foods that might not sound too appetizing, such as beef liver and chicken giblets. However, there are plenty of foods that you probably already eat that have iron as well. The following table lists some foods that are good sources of iron, either naturally or by being “fortified” (i.e., the iron has been added to the food).
|Food||Serving Size||Iron (mg)|
|Beans and Peas|
|Baked beans, without pork||½ cup||1.5|
|Chickpeas (made from dried or canned)||½ cup||1.5|
|Kidney beans (made from dried or canned)||½ cup||1.5|
|White beans (made from dried or canned)||½ cup||3.9|
|Cinnamon Life®||¾ cup||7.4|
|Rice Krispies®||1¼ cup||9|
|Whole Grain Total®||¾ cup||18|
|Quaker Oatmeal Squares®||1 cup||16.4|
|Meat, Poultry and Fish|
|Pork* (lean meat)||3 ounces||1|
|Tuna, canned*||3 ounces||1|
|Beef loin*||3 ounces||2|
|Ground turkey*||3 ounces||1|
|Chicken* (breast, skinless)||3 ounces||0.4|
|Turkey deli meat||1 cup||2|
|Hot dog||1 item||0.6|
|Ground beef||3 ounces||2|
|Cashews, unsalted||1/4 cup||2|
|Prune juice||1 cup||3|
|Spinach, boiled||½ cup||3|
|* Source of heme iron|
All iron content was calculated using the USDA Nutrient Database. It’s important to note that these are all estimates and can range depending on how a food is prepared and what else you are eating at that meal.
- Foods high in vitamin C help your body absorb non-heme iron (plant sources) Eat iron-rich foods along with foods that are high in vitamin C, such as citrus fruits and juices, cantaloupe, strawberries, tomatoes, and dark green vegetables to increase the amount of iron you absorb. For example, you could top your whole-wheat cereal with strawberries, add tomato slices or salsa to a bean burrito bowl, or have an orange with a peanut butter sandwich on whole-wheat bread.
- Eat a heme source of iron (like meat) with a non-heme source of iron (like beans) to help your body absorb non-heme iron. For optimal absorption, you can enjoy a meal that contains a source of vitamin C, a source of heme iron and a source of non-heme iron such as turkey and bean chili with tomatoes, or chicken fajitas with beans and green peppers.
- If you take a calcium supplement, try not to take it at the same time as your iron supplement because your body absorbs these nutrients better when they are taken at different times. For example, take one supplement in the morning and one with dinner.
- Avoid caffeine (for example soda, black tea, or coffee) when taking an iron supplement. Caffeine, as well as tannins found naturally in both coffee and some teas, can interfere with iron absorption.
- Choose breads, cereals, and pastas that say “enriched” or “iron-fortified” on the label. These foods have extra iron added which can help you meet your body’s iron needs.