What is a URL, and what does the URL say about the quality of a website?
URL stands for “uniform resource locator”. You can think of it as a website’s “address”. The most common way of finding a URL is through a search engine such as Google or Bing, but you can find useful URLs from printed resources such as magazines and books. When you see a URL listed on a web page, it’s called a “link” and when you click on it your browser will take you to the website connected with that web address.
The ending of a URL can give you an idea about what type of web address it is. Some of the most common endings include:
- .com addresses are often connected with a commercial site or a company that is selling something. For example, a site where you can purchase something.
- .org web addresses are usually owned by an organization. For example, this site (youngwomenshealth.org) is connected with the Center for Young Women’s Health.
- .net addresses are commonly used by internet technology organizations, such as internet service providers (ISPs) and other communication companies. The “.net” ending comes from the word “network”.
- .uk (United Kingdom) or .ca (Canada) are examples of endings that are used or reserved for a specific country.
- .gov addresses are US government websites. The US government has a health site for girls at: girlshealth.gov.
- .edu sites are reserved for “educational institutions” such as schools, colleges, and universities. One example of a university website is: harvard.edu.
What should I know about downloading?
“Downloading” means copying content from the internet onto your computer or another device such as a smartphone or tablet. Downloading can be a quick and easy way to get a file, software, or information you want. For example you can download songs or movies on iTunes, or get the latest version of a browser from the Google Chrome page.
Remember: Only download known content from trustworthy websites to avoid copying harmful or unwanted files. If you don’t know where the file is coming from, it’s better not to download it, because of the risk of downloading a virus that may harm your device. If you begin downloading something by mistake, it’s likely that there is an “X”, “Stop”, or “Cancel” button you can click to cancel the download.
Also make sure you always have an updated version of virus protection software on your computer. Handheld devices including Smartphones and tablets can also become infected with viruses. This can happen for example if you download an attachment from a sketchy website or you visit a “phishing” website that collects information from your mobile browser. Most of the companies that make anti-virus software for computers/laptops now have a version for mobile devices, and some are free.
What is a social networking site?
A social networking site is a website that focuses on building social networks/relationships between people. Joining a social networking site lets users create personal profiles that may include photos, music, and videos, as well as the chance to chat with friends. Some of the most popular social networking sites include: Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and Instagram.
I joined a social networking account. What should I know about privacy settings?
When joining a social networking site, it’s very important to go through your privacy settings. At first, your privacy settings will be set to “default”. That means that whichever social network you’ve joined has already put some privacy settings in place for you. For instance, when you first join Facebook, the default settings may be already set as “private”, but people may still be able to see certain parts of your timeline. It’s important to go into the privacy settings (for any social network you join) and customize them yourself, because the “default” settings might not be right for you.
Additionally, social networking site privacy rules and options can change over time, so it’s a good idea to revisit your settings from time to time and make sure they’re up to date. This video is a great resource for helping you understand privacy settings on Facebook.
Other things to think about when you’re on a social networking site:
If the social networking site you’re on allows you to create groups (such as “family”, “school friends”, “camp friends”, etc.) it may be a good idea to use different privacy settings for each group. That way you’re not sharing all of your personal information with everyone. This is especially important, because future employers, college recruiters, coaches, and others frequently check online profiles. If you feel comfortable taking a copy of your profile with you on a job interview, college interview, etc. your profile is probably okay. Otherwise, you should edit it.
How can I choose a safe online name?
When setting up an account on a social networking site such as Facebook or Twitter, you’ll be asked to fill out information, including your real name and e-mail address. Some social networking sites give you the option to choose a username or “chat” name.
Although you might want to choose a username that describes you in some way, remember that some names can be unfairly judged by people who don’t know you very well. For example, a username such as “hotbabe13″ may attract inappropriate e-mails. Instead, you could create a name out of a combination of letters and numbers, the name of a candy bar, your favorite color, or something else that’s not too personal. If the name is already taken, you can try adding a few numbers, for example, Green123 or Sunshine321. However, you shouldn’t use your house number, birth date, or any other personal number.
Tips for interacting with others online:
- Keep your private information private. Don’t give out your password or personal information; it’s always safer to keep that information to yourself.
- Be careful who you trust. Remember that no matter how long you’ve talked to someone online, they’re still a stranger and may not really be the person they say they are online.
- Learn how to block/ignore people. Each social networking site and chat room is different, but there’s always a way to block, ignore, or unfriend users who you don’t want to communicate with.
E-mail tips: It’s always important to know what you’re sending and to whom you’re sending it. When receiving an e-mail, always check the source before opening or forwarding it, as it may contain a virus or inappropriate pictures. Don’t forward e-mails with personal information. It’s easy to hit the send button and share a funny joke with friends, but remember to ask the original sender for permission to forward the e-mail or delete the sender’s personal information before you forward the message.
Bullying and Cyberbullying
The terms “bullying” and “cyberbullying” are often used to describe mean behavior. However, they’re both specific types of mean, aggressive behavior, which are part of a wider range of aggression and harassment behaviors.
Bullying is mean behavior that:
- Is intentional – the bullying is being done for a reason
- Involves the aggressive person using some sort of power over his/her victim. He or she may feel powerful because they are popular or the aggressive person might simply feel it’s okay to put down others.
- Happens repeatedly – more than just a couple of times
Bullying can be physical or verbal and can be face to face, or behind someone’s back. It can also involve actions that border on discrimination, whether it’s about sexuality, gender, race, class, or something else.
Cyberbullying, or “online” bullying, is bullying that happens on the internet or on a mobile device. As technologies grow and change over time, so do new ways to use them to carry out acts of bullying.
Bullying and cyberbullying aren’t totally different things. They’re examples of the same kind of behavior-with the same social, cultural, and human roots-in different contexts. It’s often hard to separate bullying and cyberbullying, since your experience of the online and offline worlds are so closely connected. For example, many online victims know their bullies in real life (although they might only be bullied by him or her online). Conflicts dealing with relationships that start out offline may carry over to social media sites, cell phones, etc., or vice versa, and escalate or turn into cyberbullying. For example: A prank pulled in the locker room at school results in ongoing social humiliation through pictures shared via cell phones and online. Another example could start with a nasty Facebook post which leads to bullying at school.
So what counts as bullying and cyberbullying, and not other kinds of meanness?
Some examples include:
- Regularly insulting someone for their sense of style, or bad grades
- Someone repeatedly posts unflattering photos or insults about a person on his/her Facebook timeline, or encourages others to do so.
- Someone creates a new website or online group meant specifically to insult another person or group of classmates.
- Someone shares texts of private photos of someone else without their permission
Bullying and cyberbullying are not:
- Once in a while, or a one-time event, where a person puts someone else down.
- Posting a rude comment to someone else’s Facebook timeline when both people are in a fight.
- Disagreements, fights, or mean words that result from misunderstandings.
Still, things aren’t always crystal clear.
It’s important to keep in mind that conflicts that start out as jokes, misunderstandings, or arguments can escalate and lead to ongoing bullying situations.
What’s more common – bullying offline, or online?
Offline bullying remains more common than cyberbullying. Offline bullying is more common among middle-schoolers, but online bullying tends to be most common among high-school students.
What roles do people play in online bullying?
Different roles include the bully; victim; bully-victim; and bystander. However, these roles aren’t always clear-cut. For example, bully-victims are people who are victims, but also bully others. Bystanders observe an act of bullying happening to someone else.
Regardless of what role a person plays, being involved in bullying both online and offline is connected with certain negative psychological, social, and academic consequences. Examples include: low self-esteem, trouble with relationships, and less success in school.
Other things to know about bullying at school:
Your relationship with your friends and others at school can affect the way you feel about bullying and can also affect your involvement in it. If you’re comfortable in your social group and your friends don’t support bullying, you likely won’t either. People who have friends who don’t support bullying are also more likely to stand up for the victim if they witness bullying. However, if your friends are bullying others, it can be easy to give into peer pressure and take part in bullying with them.
What should I do if I’m being cyberbullied?
Instead of responding to threatening messages, save the messages or inappropriate pictures in a folder and get off of the site or chat room, or close out of the IM right away. If you’re being cyberbullied on a social networking site, take a screen shot while the bullying is going on, because the bully may be able to delete the offending message or picture at any point. Tell an adult what happened or seek support from a close, trusted friend. In extreme cases, it may be necessary for you to report a bullying/cyberbullying situation to school officials and/or the police.
If this happens, you should be ready to answer the following questions:
- What exactly was said? (Print out a copy of the message/post/picture, or show the saved text message)
- What type of technology was used to make the threat? (IM, text, cell phone, other hand-held device, etc.)
- How often has the threat occurred?
- Do you know who is responsible for the threats? (Answer this question honestly. (Do you know exactly who it is?, Do you think you know who is doing it, or Do you not have a clue who is making the threats.)
You can also report abuse to the online application that was used to deliver the harassing behavior. For instance, if someone is repeatedly posting mean comments about you on Facebook, you can click the “Report/Mark as Spam” option that comes up on the right side of the post if you mouse over the pencil icon. If someone is sending e-mails to your Gmail account that violate Gmail policies, fill out the form to report the abuse. Remember that you can usually block and filter users from contacting you by adjusting your privacy settings.
Most people agree that the internet has changed their lives for the better. However, being able to find information and communicate with others online can be challenging sometimes. It’s often hard to know whether the information that you find online is true.
What online information can I trust?
Being able to tell if something on the internet is accurate is tough for everyone, not just teens. Always question any information you read online until you’re able to figure out whether or not it’s true.
Here are some general tips on how to tell if a website and information posted is reliable:
Keep in mind that there’s no way to know for sure that the information you find on a site is completely trustworthy. When trying to decide if you can trust something online, you’ll probably want to use many of these tips to help you evaluate whether or not the information is reliable. Once you find a reliable website, you can bookmark it or add it as a favorite so you can easily find it again later.
- Check the domain name. Web sites that end in .gov or .edu are generally reliable because they’re connected with the United States government and academic institutions. However, just because a website ends in .com doesn’t mean it’s unreliable. You may have to dig a little deeper to figure out whether or not you can trust the source.
- Check the sources. Look for the name of the organization, the author(s) of the website, and the most recent date that the information was updated. Reliable websites often have an “About” or “About Us” page that will give you information about the people or organization that has created the information. Reliable sites often have a list of references that include the source of the information. If the website is created by a person rather than an organization, finding out why they’re publishing the information might help you to figure out whether it’s reliable.
- Check the appearance. Judging a website based on appearance can be extremely subjective, which means that what looks legit to you might not look legit to someone else. It’s best to go with your gut here, if the information or the way it’s presented seems sketchy or makes you uncomfortable, then that’s probably a clue that the site you’re evaluating isn’t reliable. If the information presented is convincing, you’ll probably come across it in other sources (such as a book or scholarly journal) as well, which will help you ensure that the information you find is accurate.
- Check the outgoing links. If the website provides links to other sites, click on them. If the site or information you’re taken to is reliable, it’s likely the original website is trustworthy.
- Check the dates. Be sure to check the date(s) that the information on the site was last updated or revised. This will help you figure out if the site is maintained regularly and if the information is current.
- Check the facts. If you’re looking for facts, check out a few different websites to compare information. If you find the same information from a few different sources, you can be fairly sure you’ve found correct information. You’ll also know which websites are reliable and can visit them again in the future.
- Check with people. Librarians and teachers are usually good resources to help you identify accurate and trustworthy websites. If you’re looking for reliable health information, you can ask your health care provider(s) what sites they recommend.
This health guide is made possible by a grant from the The Comcast Foundation.