Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Key Facts
  • Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a serious viral illness that is highly contagious. Some people have the infection with no symptoms, others have symptoms of a cold or flu, and some a fatal lung infection.
  • According to John Hopkins University & Medicine, nearly hundreds of millions of people worldwide have been infected with the virus since January 2020.
  • COVID-19 is spread when you come in contact with infected respiratory droplets (when someone coughs or sneezes) or you touch a surface where an infected person has touched and then touch your nose, mouth, or eyes.
  • You can lower your risk of getting COVID-19 with getting vaccinated/boosted, good hand washing
  • Esta guía en Español
  • Young men's version of this guide

What is Coronavirus (COVID-19)?

Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness that had never been seen in humans before December 2019. Symptoms are usually mild and similar to a cold or the flu. They typically appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus. Initially, symptoms of COVID-19 only included cough, shortness of breath, and fever. However, it’s likely that you have COVID-19 if you have at least 2 of the following symptoms: fever, cough, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, fatigue (tired), muscle or body aches, headache, new loss of taste or smell, sore throat, congestion or runny nose, nausea or vomiting, and diarrhea. It’s important to remember people with respiratory diseases such as asthma or cystic fibrosis, those with a weakened immune system, or people over the age of 60 years old may experience severe symptoms that could be life-threatening.

How do people get this virus?

The virus is found in an infected person’s mucous, saliva and/or sputum (secretions from the lungs). COVID-19 spreads when an infected person sneezes or coughs close to a non-infected person. The virus can also be spread by touching contaminated objects or surfaces.

How is COVID-19 affecting children and teens?

Every day, health care providers (HCPs) and scientists are learning more information about COVID-19 from symptoms to treatment methods.  Originally, COVID-19 was not seen frequently in children and teens, but we have since seen cases rise in children and adolescents.

Even so, severe illness due to COVID-19 continues to be rare in children and teens. However, HCPs have seen a very small number of children and teens develop an inflammatory (swelling) response known as, “Pediatric Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome.”  Symptoms to watch for include fever, rash, swelling (hands, feet, and tongue), vomiting, and diarrhea. If you experience any these symptoms, call your HCP right away. It’s very important to stress that this syndrome can attack the heart and blood vessels, causing them to swell limiting the passage of blood through them. Many of these symptoms are similar to a rare pediatric inflammatory illness called Kawasaki “Kah-wah-sah-kee,” a serious but treatable illness usually seen in young children.  It’s important to remember, many children and teens who develop this syndrome may never show the classic signs of COVID-19.  The throat or nasal swab may be negative for COVID-19, but the blood test for antibodies to the virus may be positive (meaning that you have been exposed to the virus). The big take away here is this syndrome is treatable (when caught early) and is affecting a very low number of children and teens worldwide, but it’s important to know the signs and symptoms, just in case.

How can a person tell if they have COVID-19?

There are two ways a person can tell if they have COVID-19.  The first is by taking an at home COVID test, known as a rapid test. The other way is by seeing a health care provider (HCP), who will then perform a special test, which is called a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Some places have testing centers where people can make appointments for testing.  If you have been exposed to a person with the virus or you are experiencing mild respiratory symptoms and fever, call your HCP will determine if you need testing. According to the CDC, it is OK to take over-the-counter medications such as NSAIDs (ibuprofen, naproxen), or acetaminophen (Tylenol) for symptom management such fever or pain.

Anytime anyone is very sick or having breathing problems, they should see their health care provider or go to the closest emergency room right away.

Can COVID-19 be prevented?

There are ways to lower a person’s risk for getting infected with the COVID-19 virus (as well as many other illnesses that are spread from person to person).

  • Get vaccinated against COVID-19!
  • Avoid being around people who are sick.  Don’t kiss, hug or share cups or silverware with others.
  • Practice social distancing (maintaining at least 6 ft. between you and other people, even while wearing a mask)
  • Don’t shake hands with others
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. Try counting to 20 by saying “one one thousands, two one thousands…” or sing “Happy Birthday” twice!
  • Use hand sanitizer when you can’t wash your hands
  • Always cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze
  • Avoid touching your nose, mouth, face, or eyes
  • Change your clothes after going out in public
  • Wash your face after going out in public
  • Clean surfaces with a disinfectant regularly, especially when anyone in your family is sick.
  • Wear a mask covering your nose and mouth when you are out
  • Get your flu shot!

If you have asthma, you should also:

  • Review and update your asthma plan with your health care provider.
  • Take your preventive medicine to control your breathing if directed to do so by your HCP
If you experience ongoing symptoms following your COVID diagnosis, speak with your health care provider. As this may be a concern for a condition called “long-COVID.”